雅思听力section4高频场景词汇:Civilisation

雅思听力section4高频场景词汇:Civilisation

Teotihuacánin central Mexico is anarchaeological site, acultural landmarkand a tourist attraction, best known for its pyramids and plaza. But nearly 2,000 years ago, it was a powerful urban center, home to more than 150,000 people.

It was also one of the best planned and most diverse of such preindustrial cities—because migrants of different ethnicities streamed in following the eruptions of two volcanoes in southern Mexico that made their own homes less desirable. And as Teotihuacán grew stronger, it attracted additional migrant work forces. These newcomers tended to serve as craftspeople, construction workers, musicians and military personnel.

Now researchers have developed methodology to study the remains of one multiethnic neighborhood, using paleopathology, nutritional status and DNA, along with other techniques. And they’ve found that migrant groups appear to have competed amongst each other to obtain high-status goods and to manufacture items in demand by the city’s elites. The study is in the journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Study author Linda Manzanilla of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México also points out that the city’s rulers controlled the flow of all raw materials coming in to Teotihuacán. She further suggests that the lower class immigrants’ competition with each other, the intermediate elite gaining economic power, and the ruling elite’s control over raw materials may have combined to contribute to the cultural tension that ultimately led to Teotihuacán’s collapse. Sound familiar?

archaeological site:历史遗址,考古遗址

cultural landmark:文化里程碑

tourist attraction:旅游名胜

pyramids and plaza:太阳金字塔和广场

urban center:城市中心

Diverseadj 不同的,多样的

preindustrial cities:前工业化城市

Migrantsn 移民 adj 移居的,流浪的

streamed in:蜂拥而至

Ethnicitiesn 种族划分

Eruptions:n 爆发,喷发,火山灰

Volcanoesn 火山

work forces:劳动力

Craftspeople:手艺人

construction workers:建筑工人

military personnel:军人 personnel: n.全体人员 adj 人员的

Methodology:方法论

Multiethnicadj 多民族的

paleopathologyn 古代病理学

along with:随着

high-status:高等级

Elites:经营

Rulers:统治者

Intermediatevi 起媒介作用 n 媒介 adj 中间的

Combineadj 结合的 v 使得结合,联合

Ultimatelyadv 最终,基本上

collapsevi/vt 崩塌,倒塌,暴跌 n 失败,衰亡

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